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Volvo 2.5L Inline-5 B5254T3 Engine (Specs, Design & Reliability)

✔ This article has been fact checked.

The Volvo 2.5L Inline-5 engine was produced in many different variants and versions from 1991-2016. In this engine guide we'll be specifically looking at the B5254T3 variant.

This engine was used in many different vehicles, induing Volvos but it was used in some models of the Ford Focus, Mondeo, Kuga, and S-Max. It's the famous engine found in the Mk2 Ford Focus ST225 and RS.

The B5254T3 straight-5 engine is included in the Volvo Modular engine series.

Duratec B5254T3 Volvo engine

Engine Specs

Below are the engine specifications of the B5254T3 variant of the inline-5 Volvo Modular engines.




​2,522 cc


Straight-five cylinder

Compression Ratio



83 mm


93.2 mm



Power Output

217 hp (220 PS) - 345 hp (350 PS)

B5254T3 Engine Design

The Volvo B5254T3 engine is a 2.5 liter straight-five engine with a bore of 83mm and a stroke of 93.2mm.

It boasts a compression ratio of 9.0:1 and is turbocharged and intercooled, resulting in a power output of 220 PS (162 kW; 217 hp) at 5000 rpm with 320 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1500–4800 rpm.

The engine is equipped with CVVT and is managed by the Bosch ME 9.0 engine management system. The turbocharger in this design is integrated with the exhaust manifold, a departure from previous engine designs.

This engine has been adapted for use by Ford, with varying power outputs ranging from 220 PS (217 bhp) to 350PS (345 bhp), and has been known by different names such as "Duratec-ST", "Duratec ST", and "Duratec RS".

Modified for the Mk2 Ford Focus RS

The Volvo B5254T3 engine was updated and modified for use in the Ford Focus RS between 2009 and 2010.

Unlike the earlier B5254T3 engine, these engines were not used in any Volvo models. Instead, they were designed specifically for the Ford Focus RS and were configured as a RNC version of the S60R/V70R B5254T4 engine.

  • One key change was the lower compression ratio, achieved through the use of different pistons.

  • The connecting rods were made stronger to handle the increased power output.

  • The camshafts had the same geometry as the B5254T4 engine, but utilized different (dual) VVT units.

  • These engines also used a slightly larger Borg-Warner K16 turbo, which was an integrated manifold turbocharger. However, it did not outperform the K24 used in the B5254T4 S60R/V70R engine.

These updates and changes helped to enhance the performance of the engine in the Ford Focus RS, allowing it to deliver an even higher power output.


The B5254T3 Volvo engine was used in a variety of models from both Volvo and Ford.

  • 2005–2008 Volvo S40 II (S40 T5)

  • 2005–2008 Volvo V50 (V50 T5)

  • 2007 Volvo C30 (C30 T5)

  • 2006–2007 Volvo C70 (C70 T5)

  • 2005–2011 Ford Focus (Focus ST225)

  • 2007-2010 Ford Mondeo Mk4 (XR5 Turbo for the Australian market).

  • 2007-2010 Ford S-Max

  • 2009–2010 Ford Focus (Focus RS)

  • 2011 Ford Focus (Focus RS 500)

  • 2008–2012 Ford Kuga (Kuga 2.5T)

The Kuga 2.5T had different Euro standards, in 2008-2010 it was Euro 4 and in 2011-2012 it was Euro 5. The Australian Ford Kuga received the B5254T6 engine from 2008 to 2011.

Tuning & Performance Upgrades

The B5254T3 Volvo engine is a very highly tuneable engine with huge aftermarket support, the Ford Focus ST and RS, as well as the Mondeo ST and other Volvo models have a very large modification and tuner community.

> See our tuning guide for the mk2 Ford Focus ST225

Many modifications and tuning options are available for the B5254T3 engine. Some tuners have pushed this engine to around 400-450hp with just basic modifications, some even going as far as 600-800hp or more.

There are even examples of the B5254T3 engine being pushed to over 1,000hp.

Reliability & Problems

The Volvo B5254T3 engine is a 2.5-liter inline 5-cylinder engine that is known for its reliability and smooth operation. However, there are a few issues that users have reported, including the following.

  1. Low fuel efficiency: The B5254T3 engine is not known for its fuel efficiency, and many users have reported that it consumes more fuel than other engines in its class.

  2. Turbocharger failure: The turbocharger is a common failure point on the B5254T3 engine, and can result in reduced performance and increased engine wear.

  3. Cracked cylinder liners: Some users have reported cracks in the cylinder liners, which can result in engine damage and decreased performance. Although a common fix for this issue has become widespread throughout the tuning community known as the "block mod".

  4. Dirty throttle body: The throttle body is responsible for controlling the air flow into the engine, and a dirty throttle body can result in reduced engine performance and reduced fuel efficiency.

These are some of the most common issues reported with the B5254T3 engine, but it is important to note that the engine is generally reliable and well-regarded by users.

Regular maintenance and proper engine care can help to minimize these issues and keep the engine running smoothly for many miles.


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